Titanium, Ti

Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a light, strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant (including to sea water and chlorine) transition metal with a grayish color. Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial process (chemicals and petro-chemicals, desalination plants, pulp and paper), automotive, agri-food, medical (prostheses, orthopaedic implants, dental implants), sporting goods, jewelry, and other applications. Titanium was discovered in England by William Gregor in 1791 and named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth for the Titans of Greek mythology.

The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere, and it is found in almost all living things, rocks, water bodies and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores via the Kroll process, or the Hunter process. Its most common compound, titanium dioxide, is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) (used in smoke screens/skywriting and as a catalyst) and titanium trichloride (used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene).

Technical Data
Symbol Ti Density (25°C)/gcm3 4.5
Atomic number 22 Melting point /°C 1667
No. of naturally occurring isotopes 5 Boiling point /°C 3285
Atomic weight 47.88 ΔHfus/kJmol-1 18.8
Electronic configuration [Ar]3d24s2 ΔHvap/kJmol-1 425(+/-11)
Metal radius/pm 147 ΔHf(monoatomic gas)/kJmol-1 469(+/-4)
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm IV 60.5 Ionization energy/kJmol-1 I 658
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm III 67 Ionization energy/kJmol-1 II 1310
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm II 86 Ionization energy/kJmol-1 III 2651
Electrical resistivity (20°C)/μohm cm 42 Electronegativity χ 1.5
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
1067 1235 1453 Excellent TiC - Tungsten Alloys with refractory metals; evolves gas on first heating.

Evaporation Materials
T8-5000-M pieces 1-6mm
T8-5001-M Ingot (Please ask for sizes)
T8-5023-M pellets 3mm diameter x 3mm long
T8-5003-M pellets 6mm diameter x 6mm long
T8-5036-M pellets 12.7mm diameter x 25mm long

The foils are available in either rectangular or circular shape. Please enter width and length or diameter of the required foil.

T8-3003-F 0.004" (0.1mm)
T8-3007-F 0.008" (0.2mm)
T8-10000-P -100 mesh
T8-10003-P -325 mesh
T8-10003-P1 <44 microns
T8-2000-R 0.0625" (1.58mm)
T8-2001-R 0.125" (3.175mm)
T8-2002-R 0.250" (6.35mm)
T8-2007-R 0.394" (10mm)
T8-2003-R 0.500" (12.7mm)
T8-2004-R 0.625" (15.88mm)
T8-2005-R 0.750" (19.05mm)
T8-2008-R 0.787" (20mm)
T8-2006-R 1" (25.4mm)
T8-4001-S 0.015" (0.38mm)
T8-4002-S 0.020" (0.5mm)
T8-4003-S 0.030" (0.76mm)
T8-4004-S 0.040" (1mm)
T8-4006-S 0.060" (1.5mm)
T8-4008-S 0.125" (3.175mm)
T8-4009-S 0.250" (6.35mm)
T8-4010-S 0.375" (9.525mm)
T8-4011-S 0.500" (12.7mm)
T8-4012-S 0.750" (19.05mm)
T8-4013-S 1" (25.4mm)
T8-1000-W 0.001" (0.025mm)
T8-1001-W 0.002" (0.05mm)
T8-1003-W 0.004" (0.1mm)
T8-1005-W 0.006" (0.152mm)
T8-1007-W 0.008" (0.203mm)
T8-1012-W 0.020" (0.5mm)
T8-1014-W 0.040" (1.0mm)
T8-1018-W 0.080" (2.0mm)