Sulphur, S

Sulfur or sulphur is the chemical element that has the atomic number 16. It is denoted with the symbol S. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, but it is also widely used in gunpowder, matches, insecticides and fungicides. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. In nonscientific context it can also be referred to as brimstone.

Technical Data
Symbol S Ionization energy/kJmol-1 999.3
Atomic number 16 Covalent radius/pm 103
No. of stable isotopes 4 Ionic radius/pm 184
Atomic weight 32.06+/-0.01 Pauling electronegativity χ 2.5
Electronic configuration [Ne]3s23p4  
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
13 19 57 Poor Quartz - Tungsten Poisons Vacuum systems