Manganese, Mn

Manganese is a chemical element that has the symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is found as the free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. The free element is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses. Manganese ions are variously colored, and are used industrially as pigments and as oxidation chemicals. Manganese (II) ions function as cofactors for a number of enzymes; the element is thus a required trace mineral for all known living organisms.

Manganese is a gray-white metal resembling iron. It is a hard metal and is very brittle, fusible with difficulty, but easily oxidized. Manganese metal and its common ions are paramagnetic. This means that, while manganese metal does not form a permanent magnet, it does exhibit strong magnetic properties in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Technical Data
Symbol Mn Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm III 58(ls) 64.5(hs)
Atomic number 25 Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm II 67
No. of naturally occurring isotopes 1 Density (25°C)/gcm-3 7.43
Atomic weight 54.938 Melting point / °C 1244
Electronic configuration [Ar]3d54s2 Boiling point / °C 2060
Metal radius(12-coordinate)/pm 127 ΔHfus/kJmol-1 -13.4
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm VII 46 ΔHvap/kJmol-1 221 (+/-8)
Ionic radius(4-coordinate)/pm VI 25.5 ΔHf(monoatomic gas)/kJmol-1 281 (+/-6)
Ionic radius(4-coordinate)/pm V 33 Electrical resistivity 185
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm IV 53 Electronegativity χ 1.5
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
507 Sublimes 572 Sublimes 647 Sublimes Good Al2O3 Tungsten Tungsten, Molybdenum & Tantalum  

Evaporation Materials
M2-5003-M pieces 3-12 mm
M2-5010-M pieces 1-3 mm
M2-5012-M pellets 6mm diameter x 6mm long
M2-10002-P -325 mesh
M2-10030-P 20-50 mesh
M2-2000-R 0.125" (3.175mm)
M2-2001-R 0.250" (6.35mm)
M2-2002-R 0.375" (9.25mm)