Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, the atomic number 12, and an atomic mass of 24.31. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe by mass. It constitutes about 2% of the Earth's crust by mass, and it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater. Magnesium ions are essential to all living cells, and is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body. The free element (metal) is not found in nature. Once produced from magnesium salts, this alkaline earth metal is used as an alloying agent to make aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called "magnalium" or "magnelium".
||Ionization energy/kJmol-1 II
|No. of naturally occurring isotopes
||Melting point /°C
||Boiling point /°C
||Eo(M2+(aq)+ 2e- →M(S))/V
|Ionization energy/kJmol-1 I
||Electrical resistivity (20°C)/μohm cm
|Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure
||Al2O3 & Vitreous Graphite
||Tungsten, Molybdenum, Niobium & Tantalum
||Extremely high rates possible
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