Lead, Pb

Lead is a chemical element with the symbol Pb (Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82. A soft, heavy, toxic and malleable poor metal, lead is bluish white when freshly cut, but tarnishes to dull gray when exposed to air. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, weights, and is part of solder, pewter, and fusible alloys. Lead has the highest atomic number of all stable elements, although the next element, bismuth, has a half-life so long (longer than the estimated age of the universe) it can be considered stable. Like mercury, another heavy metal, lead is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bone over time.

Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, ductile, very soft, highly malleable, bluish-white metal that has poor electrical conductivity. This true metal is highly resistant to corrosion, and because of this property, it is used to contain corrosive liquids (e.g. sulfuric acid). Lead can be toughened by adding a small amount of antimony or other metals to it. It is a common misconception that lead has a zero Thomson effect. All lead, except 204Pb, is the end product of a complex radioactive decay (see isotopes of lead below). Lead is also poisonous.

Technical Data
Symbol Pb Density (20°C)/gcm-3 11.342
Atomic number 82 Melting point /°C 327
No. of naturally occurring isotopes 4 Boiling point /°C 1751
Atomic weight 207.2 ΔHfus/kJmol-1 4.81
Electronic configuration [Xe]4f145d10 ΔHvap/kJmol-1 178
Band gap Eg/kJ mol-1 0 ΔHf(monoatomic gas/kJmol-1 195
Ionization energy/kJmol-1I 715.4 Electronegativity χ 1.9
Ionization energy /kJmol-111 1450 rIV (covaIent)/pm 146
Ionization energy IcJmol-1III 3080.7 rIV (ionic, 6-coordinate)/pm 78
Ionization energy/kJmol-1IV 4082.3 rIV (ionic, 6-coordinate) pm 119
Electrical resistivity (20°C)/μohm cm 20x10-6    
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
342 427 497 Excellent Al2O3 & Quartz Tungsten Tungsten & Molybdenum Toxic. Carefully controlled rates required For superconductors

Evaporation Materials
L2-5000-M Ingot (Please ask for sizes)
L2-5001-M pellets 3mm diameter x 3mm long
L2-5002-M pellets 6mm diameter x 3mm long
L2-5003-M pellets 6mm diameter x 6mm long
L2-5004-M pieces 1-3mm
L2-5015-M pieces 1mm and smaller

The foils are available in either rectangular or circular shape. Please enter width and length or diameter of the required foil.

L2-3003-F 0.004" (0.1mm)
L2-3007-F 0.008" (0.2mm)
L2-10001-P -100 mesh
L2-10003-P -325 mesh
L2-10004-P 5 microns average
L2-10033-P -200 mesh
L2-2000-R 0.0625" (1.58mm)
L2-2001-R 0.125" (3.175mm)
L2-2002-R 0.250" (6.35mm)
L2-2003-R 0.500" (12.7mm)
L2-2004-R 0.625" (15.88mm)
L2-2005-R 0.750" (19.05mm)
L2-2006-R 1" (25.4mm)
L2-4002-S 0.020" (0.5mm)
L2-4003-S 0.030" (0.76mm)
L2-4004-S 0.040" (1mm)
L2-4006-S 0.060" (1.5mm)
L2-4008-S 0.125" (3.175mm)
L2-4009-S 0.250" (6.35mm)
L2-4010-S 0.375" (9.25mm)
L2-4011-S 0.500" (12.7mm)
L2-4012-S 0.750" (19.05mm)
L2-4013-S 1" (25.4mm)
L2-1000-W 0.005" (0.127mm)
L2-1003-W 0.008" (0.203mm)
L2-1007-W 0.020" (0.5mm)
L2-1009-W 0.040" (1.0mm)
L2-1010-W 0.050" (1.27mm)
L2-1011-W 0.060" (1.524mm)
L2-1012-W 0.070" (1.778mm)
L2-1013-W 0.080" (2.0mm)