Indium, In

Indium is a chemical element with chemical symbol In and atomic number 49. This rare, soft, malleable and easily fusible poor metal is chemically similar to aluminium or gallium but more closely resembles zinc (zinc ores are also the primary source of this metal). Its current primary application is to form transparent electrodes from indium tin oxide in liquid crystal displays. It is widely used in thin-films to form lubricated layers (during World War II it was widely used to coat bearings in high-performance aircraft). It's also used for making particularly low melting point alloys, and is a component in some lead-free solders.

Indium is a very soft, silvery-white, relatively rare true metal with a bright luster. As a pure metal indium emits a high-pitched "cry", when it is bent. Both gallium and indium are able to wet glass.

One unusual property of indium is that its most common isotope is slightly radioactive; it very slowly decays by beta emission to tin. This radioactivity is not considered hazardous, mainly because its half-life is 4.41×1014 years, four orders of magnitude larger than the age of the universe and nearly 50,000 times longer than that of natural thorium. Unlike its period 5 neighbor cadmium, indium is not a notorious cumulative poison.

Technical Data
Symbol In Density (20°C)/gcm3 7.3,
Atomic number 49 Melting point / °C 156.61
No. of naturally occurring isotopes 2 Boiling point / C 2080
Atomic weight 114.82 ΔHfus/kJmol-1 3.26
Electronic configuration [Kr]4d105s25p1 ΔHvap/kJmol-1 231.8
Metal radius/pm 167 ΔHf(monoatomic gas)/kJmol-1 243.1
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm III 80 Electronegativity χ 1.7
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm I 140 Electrical resistivity (20°C)/μohm cm 8.37
Ionization energy/kJmol I 558.2 Eo(M3+(aq)+e- →M+(aq))/V -0.34
Ionization energy/kJmol II 1820.2 Eo(M+(aq)+e- →M+(aq))/V -0.18
Ionization energy/kJmol III 2704 Hardness (Mohs) 1.2
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
487 597 742 Excellent, Mo liner required Graphite & Al2O3 Tungsten Tungsten & Molybdenum Wets tungsten & Copper; use Molybdenum liner in guns.

Evaporation Materials
I1-5000-M Ingot (Please ask for sizes)
I1-5002-M pellets 6mm diameter x 6mm long
I1-5014-M shot 3-6mm
I1-5020-M pellets 2mm diameter x 2mm long
I1-5022-M pellets 3mm diameter x 3mm long

The foils are available in either rectangular or circular shape. Please enter width and length or diameter of the required foil.

Foil
I1-3003-F 0.004" (0.1mm)
I1-3007-F 0.008" (0.2mm)
Powder
I1-10000-P -100 mesh
I1-10001-P -325 mesh
Rods
I1-2000-R 0.0625" (1.58mm)
I1-2001-R 0.125" (3.175mm)
I1-2002-R 0.250" (6.35mm)
I1-2003-R 0.500" (12.7mm)
I1-2004-R 0.625" (15.88mm)
I1-2005-R 0.750" (19.05mm)
I1-2006-R 1" (25.4mm)
Sheet
I1-4002-S 0.020" (0.5mm)
I1-4004-S 0.040" (1mm)
I1-4006-S 0.060" (1.5mm)
I1-4008-S 0.125" (3.175mm)
I1-4009-S 0.250" (6.35mm)
I1-4010-S 0.375" (9.25mm)
I1-4011-S 0.500" (12.7mm)
I1-4012-S 0.750" (19.05mm)
I1-4013-S 1" (25.4mm)
Wire
I1-1000-W 0.010" (0.254mm)
I1-1002-W 0.020" (0.5mm)
I1-1004-W 0.040" (1.0mm)
I1-1005-W 0.050" (1.27mm)
I1-1006-W 0.060" (1.524mm)
I1-1008-W 0.070" (1.778mm)
I1-1009-W 0.080" (2.0mm)