Germanium, Ge

Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. This lustrous, hard, silver-white metalloid is chemically similar to tin. Germanium forms a large number of organometallic compounds and is an important semiconductor material used in transistors. It is named after the country of Germany.

Germanium is a hard, grayish-white element that has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond. Germanium is a semiconductor. In its pure state, this metalloid is crystalline, brittle and retains its lustre in air at room temperature. Zone refining techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that have an impurity of only one part in 1010. Along with gallium, bismuth, antimony and water, it is one of the few substances that expands as it solidifies (i.e. freezes) from its molten state. Germanium releases high energy electrons if bombarded with alpha particles and is used in combination with radon for the nuclear batteries patented by Bruce Perreault.

Technical Data
Symbol Ge Density (20°C)/gcm-3 5.323
Atomic number 32 Melting point /°C 945
No. of naturally occurring isotopes 5 Boiling point /°C 2850
Atomic weight 72.59(+/-3) ΔHvap/kJmol-1 36.8
Electronic configuration [Ar]3d10 ΔHmonoatomic gas/kJmol-1 328
Covalent radius/pm IV 122.3 ΔHf(monoatomic gas)/kJmol-1 283
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm IV 53 Band gap Eg/kJ mol-1 64.2
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm II 73 Ionization energy/kJmol-1 I 761.2
Electrical resistivity   Ionization energy/kJmol-1 II 1537
(20°C)/μohm cm ~47 Ionization energy/kJmol-1 III 3301.2
Electronegativity χ 1.8 Ionization energy/kJmol-1 IV 4409.4
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
812 957 1167 Excellent Quartz & Al2O3 - Tungsten, Graphite & Tantalum Excellent films from EB sources. Use .040” W. n= 4.01.

Evaporation Materials
G3-5000-M Ingot (Please ask for sizes)
G3-5013-M pieces 3-6mm
G3-5002-M pellets 6mm diameter x 6mm long
G3-5012-M pieces 1-5mm
G3-5014-M pieces 10-15mm
G3-5017-M pieces 1-2mm
G3-10000-P -10 mesh
G3-10001-P -100 mesh
G3-10002-P -325 mesh