Erbium, Er

Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A rare, silvery, white metallic lanthanide; Erbium is a solid in its normal state. It is a rare earth element, erbium is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden.

A trivalent element, pure erbium metal is malleable (or easily shaped), soft yet stable in air, and does not oxidize as quickly as some other rare-earth metals. Its salts are rose-colored, and the element has characteristic sharp absorption spectra bands in visible light, ultraviolet, and near infrared. Otherwise it looks much like the other rare earths. Its sesquioxide is called erbia. Erbium's properties are to a degree dictated by the kind and amount of impurities present. Erbium does not play any known biological role, but is thought by some to be able to stimulate metabolism[citation needed]. Erbium-doped glasses or crystals can be used as optical amplification media, where erbium ions are optically pumped at around 980nm or 1480nm and then radiate light at 1550nm. This process can be used to create lasers and optical amplifiers. The 1550nm wavelength is especially important for optical communications because standard single mode optical fibers have minimal loss at this particular wavelength. A large variety of medical applications can be found (i.e. dermatology, dentistry) by utilizing the 2940nm emission (see Er:YAG_laser) which is highly absorped in water (about 12000 1/cm).

Technical Data
Symbol Er Density (25°C)/gcm-3 9.045
Atomic number 68 Melting point /°C 1497
No. of naturally occurring isotopes 6 Boiling point /°C -2900
Atomic weight 167.26 (+/-3) ΔHvap/kJmol-1 280
Outer electron configuration 4f126s2 ΔHmonoatomic gas/kJmol-1 317
Metal radius (6-coordinatc)/pm 176.1 ΔH(hydration Ln3+)/kJmol-1 3691
Ionic radius (6-coordinate)/pm III 89 Ionization cnergy/kJmol-1I 581
Ionic radius(6-coordinate) pm II - Ionization energy/kJmol-1II 1151
Electrical resistivity (25°C)/ μohm cm 86 Ionization cncrgy/kJmol-1III 2207
Eo(M3+(aq)+ 3e- →M(S))/V -2.296  
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
650 Sublimes 775 Sublimes 930 Sublimes Good - - Tungsten & Tantalum  

Evaporation Materials
E1-5000-M 1-4mm pieces
E1-5001-M Ingot (Please ask for sizes)
E1-5002-M pieces 12mm and smaller

The foils are available in either rectangular or circular shape. Please enter width and length or diameter of the required foil.

Foil
E1-3003-F 0.004" (0.1mm)
E1-3007-F 0.008" (0.2mm)
Powder
E1-10000-P -40 mesh
E1-10001-P -100 mesh
E1-10002-P -325 mesh
Rods
E1-2000-R 0.250" (6.35mm)
E1-2001-R 0.500" (12.7mm)
E1-2002-R 2mm
Sheet
E1-4002-S 0.020" (0.5mm)
E1-4003-S 0.030" (0.76mm)
E1-4004-S 0.040" (1.0mm)