Copper, Cu

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with excellent electrical conductivity, and finds extensive use as an electrical conductor, heat conductor, as a building material, and as a component of various alloys.

Copper is an essential trace nutrient to all high plants and animals. In animals, including humans, it is found primarily in the bloodstream, as a co-factor in various enzymes, and in copper-based pigments. However, in sufficient amounts, copper can be poisonous and even fatal to organisms.

Copper has played a significant part in the history of humankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for thousands of years. Civilizations in places such as Iraq, China, Egypt, Greece, India and the Sumerian cities all have early evidence of using copper. During the Roman Empire, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, hence the origin of the name of the metal as Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum.

A number of countries, such as Chile and the United States, still have sizable reserves of the metal which are extracted through large open pit mines, however like tin there may be insufficient reserves to sustain current rates of consumption. High demand relative to supply has caused a price spike in the 2000s.

Technical Data
Symbol Cu Density (20°C)/gcm3' 8.95
Atomic number 29 Melting point / °C 1083
No. of naturally occurring isotopes 2 Boiling point / °C 2570
Atomic weight 63.546 (+/-0.003) ΔHfus/kJmol-1 13
Electronic configuration [Ar]3d304s3 ΔHvap/kJmol-1 307 (+/-6)
Metal radius( 12-coordinate )pm 128 ΔHf(monoatomic gas)/kJmol-1 337 (+/-6)
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm III 54 Ionization cnergy/kJmol-1 I 745.3
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm II 73 Ionization energy/kJmol-1 II 1957.3
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm I 77 Ionization cncrgy/kJmol-1 III 3577.6
Electrical resistivity (20°C)/μohm cm 1.673 Electronegativity χ 1.9
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
727 857 1017 Excellent Al2O3, Molybdenum & Tantalum Tungsten Molybdenum Films do not adhere well. Use intermediate Layer, e.g. chromium. Evaporates from any Source material.

Evaporation Materials
C8-5000-M Ingot (Please ask for sizes)
C8-5001-M pellets 3mm diameter x 3mm long
C8-5002-M pellets 6mm diameter x 6mm long
C8-5015-M shot 3-8mm
C8-5016-M pellets 3mm diameter x 10mm long
C8-5018-M pellets 1mm diameter x 2mm long

The foils are available in either rectangular or circular shape. Please enter width and length or diameter of the required foil.

Foil
C8-3003-F 0.004" (0.1mm)
C8-3007-F 0.008" (0.2mm)
Powder
C8-10000-P -100 mesh
C8-10003-P -200 mesh
C8-10005-P -325 mesh
Rods
C8-2000-R 0.0625" (1.5mm)
C8-2001-R 0.125" (3.175mm)
C8-2002-R 0.250" (6.35mm)
C8-2003-R 0.500" (12.7mm)
C8-2004-R 0.625" (15.88mm)
C8-2005-R 0.750" (19.05mm)
C8-2006-R 1" (25.4mm)
Sheet
C8-4002-S 0.020" (0.5mm)
C8-4004-S 0.040" (1mm)
C8-4006-S 0.060" (1.5mm)
C8-4008-S 0.125" (3.175mm)
C8-4009-S 0.250" (6.35mm)
C8-4010-S 0.375" (9.25mm)
C8-4011-S 0.500" (12.7mm)
C8-4012-S 0.750" (19.05mm)
C8-4013-S 1" (25.4mm)
Wire
C8-1001-W 0.001" (0.025mm)
C8-1002-W 0.002" (0.05mm)
C8-1004-W 0.004" (0.1mm)
C8-1008-W 0.008" (0.2mm)
C8-1012-W 0.020" (0.5mm)
C8-1014-W 0.040" (1mm)
C8-1016-W 0.060" (1.5mm)
C8-1018-W 0.080" (2mm)