Antimony, Sb

Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (Latin: stibium, meaning "mark") and atomic number 51. A metalloid, antimony has four allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metalloid. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber.

Antimony in its elemental form is a silvery white, brittle, fusible, crystalline solid that exhibits poor electrical and heat conductivity properties and vaporizes at low temperatures. A metalloid, antimony resembles a metal in its appearance and in many of its physical properties, but does not chemically react as a metal. It is also attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens. Antimony and some of its alloys are unusual in that they expand on cooling. Antimony is geochemically categorized as a chalcophile, occurring with sulfur and the heavy metals lead, copper, and silver.

Estimates of the abundance of antimony in the Earth's crust range from 0.2 to 0.5 ppm.

Technical Data
Symbol Sb Density (25°C)/gcm-3 6.691
Atomic number 51 Melting point / °C 630.74
Atomic weight 121.75 Boiling point / °C 1587
Electronic configuration [Kr] 4d105s25p3 rcov(MIII single bond)/pm 140
Ionization energy/MJmol-1 I 0.834 rionic(6-coordinate)(MIII)/pm 76
II 1.595 (6-coordinate)(Mv)/pm 60
III 2.443 Hardness (Mohs) 3.35
Sum (I+II+III)/MJmof-1 4.872 Electrical resistivity (20°C)/μohm cm 41.7
Sum (IV+V)/MJmof -1 9.636 Contraction on freezing/% 0.8
Electronegativity χ 1.9    
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
279 Sublimes 345 Sublimes 425 Sublimes Poor BN, Graphite & Al2O3 Molybdenum & Tantalum Molybdenum, Tantalum coated with Al2O3 Toxic, evaporates well. Film structure is rate dependent.

Evaporation Materials
A2-5000-M Ingot (Please ask for sizes)
A2-5002-M Pellets 6mm dia. X 6mm long
A2-5003-M Pieces 1-4mm
A2-5004-M Pieces 3-12mm
A2-5005-M Shot 1-3mm
A2-5018-M Pieces 3-6mm
A2-10000-P -100 mesh
A2-10001-P -100 mesh, 325 mesh
A2-10002-P -200 mesh
A2-10003-P -325 mesh (<10 microns)
A2-2000-R 0.125" (3.175mm)
A2-2001-R 0.250" (6.35mm)
A2-2002-R 0.500" (12.7mm)
A2-2003-R 0.625" (15.88mm)
A2-2004-R 0.750" (19.05mm)
A2-2005-R 1" (25.4mm)