Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white and ductile member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al; its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances. Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, and the third most abundant element overall, after oxygen and silicon. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. Aluminium is too reactive chemically to occur in nature as the free metal. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief source of aluminium is bauxite ore.
Aluminium is remarkable for its ability to resist corrosion (due to the phenomenon of passivation) and its light weight. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building. Its reactive nature makes it useful as a catalyst or additive in chemical mixtures, including being used in ammonium nitrate explosives to enhance blast power.
||Melting point / °C
|No. of naturally occurring isotopes
||Boiling point / °C
|Ionization energy/kJmol-1 I
||Electrical resistivity/µohm cm
||E0 (M3+(aq) +3e-→M(S))/V
|Ionic radius/pm (6-coord)
||E0 (M+(aq) +e-→M(S))/V
|Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure
||BN, Glassy coated graphite
|Alloys and wets.
Corrosive when molten.
Thick W boat 0.015” - 0.020” recommended
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