Vanadium, V

Vanadium is a chemical element that has the symbol V and atomic number 23. A soft and ductile element, vanadium naturally occurs in certain minerals and is used mainly to produce certain alloys. It is one of the 26 elements found in most living organisms.

Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily at about 933 K (660 C). Vanadium has good structural strength and a low fission neutron cross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Although a metal, it shares with chromium and manganese the property of having valency oxides with acid properties.

Common oxidation states of vanadium include +2, +3, +4 and +5. A popular experiment with ammonium vanadate NH4VO3, reducing the compound with zinc metal, can demonstrate colorimetrically all four of these vanadium oxidation states. A +1 oxidation state is rarely seen.

Technical Data
Symbol V Density (20°C)/gcm3 6.11
Atomic number 23 Melting point / °C 1915
No. of naturally occurring isotopes 2 Boiling point / °C 3350
Atomic weight 50.9415 ΔHfus/kJmol-1 17.5
Electronic configuration [Ar]3d34s2 ΔHvap/kJmol-1 459.7
Metal radius(12-coordinate)/pm 134 ΔHf(monoatomic gas)/kJmol-1 510(+/-29)
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm V 54 Electronegativity χ 1.6
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm IV 58 Electrical resistivity  
Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm III 64 (20°C)/μohm cm ~25
Evaporation Techniques
Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure Techniques Remarks
10-8 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-4 Torr Electron Beam Crucible Coil Boat
1162 1332 1547 Excellent - - Tungsten & Molybdenum Wets Molybdenum. EB evaporated films preferred.

Evaporation Materials
V1-5000-M pellets 6mm diameter x 3mm long
V1-5001-M pellets 6mm diameter x 6mm long
V1-5002-M pieces 3mm and smaller

The foils are available in either rectangular or circular shape. Please enter width and length or diameter of the required foil.

Foil
V1-3003-F 0.004" (0.1mm)
V1-3007-F 0.008" (0.2mm)
Powder
V1-10000-P -20 mesh
V1-10002-P -325 mesh
Rods
V1-2000-R 0.0625" (1.58mm)
V1-2001-R 0.125" (3.175mm)
V1-2002-R 0.250" (6.35mm)
V1-2003-R 0.500" (12.7mm)
V1-2004-R 0.625" (15.88mm)
V1-2005-R 0.750" (19.05mm)
V1-2006-R 1" (25.4mm)
Sheet
V1-4001-S 0.015" (0.38mm)
V1-4002-S 0.020" (0.5mm)
V1-4003-S 0.030" (0.76mm)
V1-4004-S 0.040" (1mm)
V1-4006-S 0.060" (1.5mm)
V1-4008-S 0.125" (3.175mm)
V1-4009-S 0.250" (6.35mm)
V1-4010-S 0.375" (9.525mm)
V1-4011-S 0.500" (12.7mm)
V1-4012-S 0.750" (19.05mm)
V1-4013-S 1" (25.4mm)
Wire
V1-1000-W 0.005" (0.127mm)
V1-1001-W 0.006" (0.152mm)
V1-1003-W 0.008" (0.203mm)
V1-1007-W 0.020" (0.5mm)
V1-1009-W 0.040" (1.0mm)
V1-1013-W 0.080" (2.0mm)