Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a lustrous, gray-white, strong transition metal that resembles titanium. Zirconium is never found as a native metal, but is instead obtained mainly from the mineral zircon. Zirconium is used as an alloying agent due to its high resistance to corrosion.
Zirconium is a lustrous, grayish-white, soft, ductile, and malleable metal which is solid at room temperature, though it becomes hard and brittle at higher purities. In powder form, zirconium is highly flammable, but the solid form is far less prone to igniting. Zirconium is highly resistant to corrosion by alkalis, acids, salt water, and other agents. However, it will dissolve in hydrochloric and sulfuric acid, especially when fluorine is present. Alloys with zinc become magnetic below 35 K
The melting point of zirconium is at 1855°C, and the boiling point is at 4409°C. Zirconium has an electronegativity of 1.33 on the Pauling scale. Of the elements within d-block, Zirconium has the fourth lowest electronegativity after yttrium, lutetium, and hafnium.
|Atomic number||40||Melting point / °C||1857|
|No. of naturally occurring isotopes||5||Boiling point / °C||4200|
|Metal radius/pm||160||ΔHf(monoatomic gas)/kJmol-1||612(+/-11)|
|Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm M(IV)||72||Electrical resistivity|
|Ionization energy/kJmol-1 I||660||(20°C)/μohm cm||40|
|Ionization energy/kJmol-1 II||1267||Electronegativity χ||1.4|
|Ionization energy/kJmol-1 III||2218|
|Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure||Techniques||Remarks|
|10-8 Torr||10-6 Torr||10-4 Torr||Electron Beam||Crucible||Coil||Boat|
|1477||1702||1987||Excellent||-||-||Tungsten|| Alloys with Tungsten. Films oxidize readily|
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