Vanadium is a chemical element that has the symbol V and atomic number 23. A soft and ductile element, vanadium naturally occurs in certain minerals and is used mainly to produce certain alloys. It is one of the 26 elements found in most living organisms.
Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily at about 933 K (660 C). Vanadium has good structural strength and a low fission neutron cross section, making it useful in nuclear applications. Although a metal, it shares with chromium and manganese the property of having valency oxides with acid properties.
Common oxidation states of vanadium include +2, +3, +4 and +5. A popular experiment with ammonium vanadate NH4VO3, reducing the compound with zinc metal, can demonstrate colorimetrically all four of these vanadium oxidation states. A +1 oxidation state is rarely seen.
|Atomic number||23||Melting point / °C||1915|
|No. of naturally occurring isotopes||2||Boiling point / °C||3350|
|Metal radius(12-coordinate)/pm||134||ΔHf(monoatomic gas)/kJmol-1||510(+/-29)|
|Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm V||54||Electronegativity χ||1.6|
|Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm IV||58||Electrical resistivity|
|Ionic radius(6-coordinate)/pm III||64||(20°C)/μohm cm||~25|
|Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure||Techniques||Remarks|
|10-8 Torr||10-6 Torr||10-4 Torr||Electron Beam||Crucible||Coil||Boat|
|1162||1332||1547||Excellent||-||-||Tungsten & Molybdenum|| Wets Molybdenum. EB evaporated films preferred.|
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