Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (Latin: stibium, meaning "mark") and atomic number 51. A metalloid, antimony has four allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metalloid. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber.
Antimony in its elemental form is a silvery white, brittle, fusible, crystalline solid that exhibits poor electrical and heat conductivity properties and vaporizes at low temperatures. A metalloid, antimony resembles a metal in its appearance and in many of its physical properties, but does not chemically react as a metal. It is also attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens. Antimony and some of its alloys are unusual in that they expand on cooling. Antimony is geochemically categorized as a chalcophile, occurring with sulfur and the heavy metals lead, copper, and silver.
Estimates of the abundance of antimony in the Earth's crust range from 0.2 to 0.5 ppm.
|Atomic number||51||Melting point / °C||630.74|
|Atomic weight||121.75||Boiling point / °C||1587|
|Electronic configuration||[Kr] 4d105s25p3||rcov(MIII single bond)/pm||140|
|Ionization energy/MJmol-1 I||0.834||rionic(6-coordinate)(MIII)/pm||76|
|Sum (I+II+III)/MJmof-1||4.872||Electrical resistivity (20°C)/μohm cm||41.7|
|Sum (IV+V)/MJmof -1||9.636||Contraction on freezing/%||0.8|
|Temperature (oC) @Vap. Pressure||Techniques||Remarks|
|10-8 Torr||10-6 Torr||10-4 Torr||Electron Beam||Crucible||Coil||Boat|
|279 Sublimes||345 Sublimes||425 Sublimes||Poor||BN, Graphite & Al2O3||Molybdenum & Tantalum||Molybdenum, Tantalum coated with Al2O3|| Toxic, evaporates well. Film structure is rate dependent.|
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